Friday, April 12, 2013

Dr Manmohan Singh Biography

Dr Manmohan Singh Biography

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Manmohan Singh

Manmohan Singh (26 Sep 1932 - present) is the 14th and accepted Prime Abbot of India. Admired by some as the "most educated" Indian Prime Abbot in history, Singh is a affiliate of the Indian National Congress party, and became the aboriginal Sikh Prime Abbot of India on May 22, 2004. He is advised one of the best able and affecting abstracts in India's contempo history, mainly because of the bread-and-butter reforms he had accomplished in 1991 back he was Accounts Abbot beneath Prime Abbot Narasimha Rao.

Early activity

He was built-in on 26 September 1932, in Gah, Punjab (now in Chakwal District, Pakistan). He has an Undergraduate (1952) and a Master's amount (1954) from Panjab University, Chandigarh; an Undergraduate amount (1957) from Cambridge University (St. John's College) and a D.Phil (1962) from Oxford University (Nuffield College). The University of Oxford awarded him an honorary Doctor of Civil Law amount in June 2005, and in October 2006, the University of Cambridge followed with the aforementioned honour.Singh affiliated Gursharan Kaur in 1958, and they acquire three daughters.

Political Career

Singh, an economist by profession, formed for the All-embracing Monetary Fund in his adolescent days. Dr. Singh is accepted to be an backward politician, adequate a formidable, awful admired and admired image. Due to his assignment at the UN, All-embracing Monetary Fund and added all-embracing bodies, he is awful admired about the world. He was awarded the Outstanding Parliamentarian Award in 2002. Before acceptable Prime Minister, he served as the Accounts Abbot beneath Narasimha Rao. He is accustomed with transforming the abridgement in the aboriginal 1990s during the banking crisis. He served as Baton of the Action in the Rajya Sabha (upper house) from March 1998 to May 2004, back the Bharatiya Janata Party-led affiliation government was in office.His bread-and-butter behavior - which included accepting rid of several left-wing policies, abnormally the License Raj - were popular. He enjoys able abutment amid the average classes of India due to his education. Singh absent the acclamation in the Lok Sabha from South Delhi constituency in the 1999 accepted elections. He is appropriately the alone Indian Prime Abbot never to acquire been an adopted affiliate of the Lower Abode of Parliament. In actuality he has not won a absolute election. He has been a affiliate of the Rajya Sabha from Assam back 1995. He was re-elected to the Rajya Sabha in 2001 and 2007.

Economic reforms and ascendance to power

Singh served as Governor of the Reserve Bank of India from 1982 to 1985, and was duke best as accounts abbot in chiffonier of again Prime Abbot Narasimha Rao in 1991.Singh is broadly admired as the artist of India's aboriginal bread-and-butter ameliorate programme, which was allowable in 1991 beneath Rao's administration. The bread-and-butter liberalization amalgamation pushed by Singh and Rao opened the nation to adopted absolute investment. The liberalization was prompted by an astute balance-of-payments crisis whereby the Indian government, larboard afterwards acceptable affluence to accommodated its obligations, had amorphous affairs to mortgage its gold affluence to the Bank of England in adjustment to access the banknote affluence bare to run the country.Many see the 1991 liberalization as the aboriginal of a alternation of bread-and-butter restructuring efforts throughout the 1990s and 2000s that acquire aloft India's advance ante to amidst accomplished in world. Despite its advanced bread-and-butter policies, Rao's government was voted out in the abutting accepted acclamation in 1996.

Opposition and 2004 election

Singh became baton of action in aerial abode of Indian Parliament, and backward with the Congress Affair during a above breach in 1999, back three chief Congress leaders objected to Sonia Gandhi's acceleration as Congress President. Being accustomed as the Congress best for the PM's job, Gandhi had become a ambition of nationalists who objected to her Italian birth.An accord led by the Congress Affair won a decidedly aerial cardinal of seats in the Parliamentary elections of 2004. The Larboard Front absitively to abutment a affiliation government led by the Congress Affair from the outside. Sonia Gandhi was adopted baton of the Congress Parliamentary Affair and was accepted to become the Prime Minister. In a abruptness move, she beneath to acquire the column and instead nominated Dr. Singh. He anchored the choice for prime abbot on May 19, 2004 back the again President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam clearly asked him to anatomy a government. Although best accepted him to arch the Accounts Ministry himself, he entrusted the job to P. Chidambaram.His arrangement is notable as it comes 20 years afterwards India witnessed cogent tensions amid the Indian axial government and the Punjabi Sikh community. Afterwards Congress Affair Prime Abbot Indira Gandhi, the mother-in-law of Sonia Gandhi, ordered axial government troops to storm the Golden Temple (the holiest armpit of Sikhism) in Amritsar, Punjab to annihilate a agitator movement, she was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards. The aftereffect was a genocidal attack adjoin Sikhs and abounding innocent Sikhs absent their lives during riots answer by the Congress Affair anon afterwards the assassination.Singh's angel is about admired as intellectual, honest but cautious, alert to alive chic bodies (on whose votes he was elected), and technocratic. Although aldermanic achievements acquire been few and the Congress-led accord is commonly bedfast by conflicts, Singh's administering has focused on abbreviation the budgetary deficit, accouterment debt-relief to poor farmers, extending amusing programs and advancing the pro-industry bread-and-butter and tax behavior that acquire launched the country on a above bread-and-butter amplification advance back 2002. Singh has been the angel of the Congress attack to defuse religious tensions and conflicts and bolster political abutment from minorities like Muslims, Christians and Sikhs.His government has endeavored to body stronger relations with the United States, the People's Republic of China and European nations. The Government suffered a setback back it absent the abutment of a key ally, several African Union members, for its bid for a abiding associates to the U.N. Security Council with veto privileges. One of the better achievements of Manmohan Singh's Government has been a nuclear accord amid India and the U.S.A. Beneath Dr. Singh, an economist and Accounts abbot P. Chidambaram, India's bread-and-butter advance has continued, with the GDP growing at a actual fast amount of 9%. This has resulted in India acceptable a abundance dollar economy.


Resume of Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, and the original Architect of the Economic Liberlization.

Born on: September 26, 1932

Place of Birth: Gah (West Punjab)

Father: Gurmukh Singh

Mother: Amrit Kaur

Married on: September 14, 1958

Wife: Gursharan Kaur

Children: Three daughters


Stood first in BA (Hons), Economics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 1952; stood first in MA (Economics), Panjab University, Chandigarh, 1954; Wright's Prize for distinguished performance at St John's College, Cambridge, 1955 and 1957; Wrenbury scholar, University of Cambridge, 1957; DPhil (Oxford), DLitt (Honoris Causa); PhD thesis on India's export competitiveness


Professor (Senior lecturer, Economics, 1957-59; Reader, Economics, 1959-63; Professor, Economics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 1963-65; Professor, International Trade, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, 1969-71; Honorary professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 1976 and Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, 1996) and Civil Servant


1971-72: Economic advisor, ministry of foreign trade
1972-76: Chief economic advisor, ministry of finance
1976-80: Director, Reserve Bank of India; Director, Industrial Development Bank of India; Alternate governor for India, Board of governors, Asian Development Bank; Alternate governor for India, Board of governors, IBRD
November 1976 - April 1980: Secretary, ministry of finance (department of economic affairs); Member, finance, Atomic Energy Commission; Member, finance, Space Commission
April 1980 - September 15, 1982 : Member-secretary, Planning Commission
1980-83: Chairman, India Committee of the Indo-Japan joint study committee September 16, 1982 - January 14, 1985: Governor, Reserve Bank of India
1982-85: Alternate Governor for India, Board of governors, International Monetary Fund
1983-84: Member, economic advisory council to the Prime Minister
1985: President, Indian Economic Association
January 15, 1985 - July 31, 1987 : Deputy chairman, Planning Commission
August 1, 1987 - November 10, 1990 : Secretary-general and commissioner, south commission, Geneva
December 10, 1990 - March 14, 1991 : Advisor to the Prime Minister on economic affairs
March 15, 1991 - June 20, 1991 : Chairman, UGC
June 21, 1991 - May 15, 1996 : Union finance minister
October 1991: Elected to Rajya Sabha from Assam on Congress ticket
June 1995: Re-elected to Rajya Sabha
1996 onwards: Member, Consultative Committee for the ministry of finance
August 1, 1996 - December 4, 1997 : Chairman, Parliamentary standing committee on commerce
March 21, 1998 onwards: Leader of the Opposition, Rajya Sabha
June 5, 1998 onwards: Member, committee on finance
August 13, 1998 onwards: Member, committee on rules
Aug 1998-2001: Member, committee of privileges 2000 onwards: Member, executive committee, Indian parliamentary group
June 2001: Re-elected to Rajya Sabha
Aug 2001 onwards: Member, general purposes committee


India's Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth ? Clarendon Press, Oxford University, 1964; also published a large number of articles in various economic journals.


Adam Smith Prize, University of Cambridge, 1956
Padma Vibhushan, 1987
Euromoney Award, Finance Minister of the Year, 1993;
Asiamoney Award, Finance Minister of the Year for Asia, 1993 and 1994


1966: Economic Affairs Officer
1966-69: Chief, financing for trade section, UNCTAD
1972-74: Deputy for India in IMF Committee of Twenty on International Monetary Reform
1977-79: Indian delegation to Aid-India Consortium Meetings 1980-82: Indo-Soviet joint planning group meeting
1982: Indo-Soviet monitoring group meeting
1993: Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting Cyprus 1993: Human Rights World Conference, Vienna

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